Journal Articles

Preparing your manuscript

The type of article should determine the manuscript structure. However, the general structure for articles should provide: 

Title: The title phrase should be brief.

 List authors’ full names: (First-name, Middle-name, and Last-name).

Affiliations of authors: (Department and Institution).

Emails and phone numbers

Abstract: The abstract should be less than 300 words.

Keywords: The keywords should be less than 10.

The Introduction: The statement of the problem should be stated in the introduction in a clear and concise manner. The research gap and purpose of the study ought to be provided in the introduction section.

Literature review: In-depth theoretical and empirical literature should be provided.

Conceptual model and Hypotheses development: If the study is quantitative, a conceptual model ought to be provided and explained. The proposed hypotheses ought to be developed thereafter too.

Research methodology: A clear explanation of how the field work was conducted should be provided in this section. In particular, this should include the sampling design; questionnaire/measurement instrument design; data collection technique and data analysis approach. Materials and the research methods used should be clearly presented to allow the reproduction of the experiments/study.

Results and discussion: Results of the study should be provided and discussed thereafter.  Results and discussion may be combined into a single section. Results and discussion may also be presented separately if necessary.

Implications of the Study: Both theoretical and practical implications of the study ought to be provide.

Limitations and Future Research: The study limitations should be provided in this section and future research directions indicated too.


Tables and figures

  • Tables should be kept to a minimum.
  • Tables should have a short descriptive title.
  • The unit of measurement used in a table should be stated.
  • Tables should be numbered consecutively.
  • Tables should be organized in Microsoft Word or Excel spreadsheet.
  • Figures/Graphics should be prepared in GIF, TIFF, JPEG or PowerPoint.
  • Tables and Figures should be appropriately cited in the manuscript.


Manuscript Acceptance Certificate: Authors are issued an Acceptance Certificate for manuscripts that have been reviewed and accepted for publication by CBIJ editor.

Proofs: Prior to publication, CBIJ will sent a proof to the corresponding author. Authors are advised to read the proof and correct minor typographical or grammatical errors. Authors should promptly return proofs to the CBIJ Chief Editor.


Once the CBIJ Chief Editor receives the proof from the author/s, the manuscript/s are will be published in the CBIJ forthcoming Issues online. 

Publication Notification

CBIJ Chief Editor will send a publication notice to the corresponding author with links to the issue and article, once the manuscript is available on CBIJ website.

Important Notes for Authors (Full Paper Submission)  

Paper Formatting Guidelines Important Papers that do not follow the guidelines as specified below may be returned to authors for re-formatting. We also request that you proofread your paper carefully to ensure that it is free of technical errors in usage, punctuation, etc. Some authors may wish to consider having their papers checked for consistency of English language usage before submission. 

Paper size:  A4


Line spacing:  Single spacing

Margins:   Top – 2.54cm    Bottom – 2.54cm    Left – 2.54cm    Right – 2.54cm 

Please do not include headers/ footers or number the pages.  

Word Limit:  Abstract – 300. Words Body of Paper (EXCLUDING references) – 5000 to 6000 Words 

Please use the format below for the formatting of the entire paper.

FULL PAPER TITLE [TIMES NEW ROMAN 16 PT, UPPER CASE, BOLD, CENTRED] First name, Surname1 and First name Surname 2 


An abstract of no more than 300 words should be provided. It should be in running prose with no sub-headings.


The section heading is applied to the header of the Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review, Methods, Findings, Conclusion, and References. 

Sub Heading 1st Level [TIMES NEW ROMAN 12 pt, Title Case, Bold, Italic, Flush Left] Sub heading 2nd level [Arial 12 pt, Sentence case, Bold, Italic, Flush left]

Text [Normal – TIMES NEW ROMAN 12 pt, Justify]  


References should be used in the text and listed alphabetically by author at the end of the text using the following examples (APA format): 

Book with Single Author:

Gore, A. (2006). An inconvenient truth: The planetary emergency of global warming and what we can do about it. Emmaus, PA: Rodale.

In-text reference: (Gore, 2006)

Book with Two Authors:

Michaels, P. J., & Balling, R. C., Jr. (2000). The satanic gases: Clearing the air about global warming. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.

In-text reference: (Michaels & Balling, 2000)

Book with Editor as Author:

Galley. K. E. (Ed.). (2004). Global climate change and wildlife in North America. Bethesda, MD: Wildlife Society.

In-text reference: (Galley, 2004)

Brochure or Pamphlet:

New York State Department of Health. (2002). After a sexual assault. [Brochure]. Albany, NY: Author.

In-text reference: (New York, 2002)


An Anonymous Book:

Environmental resource handbook. (2001). Millerton, NY: Grey House.

In-text reference: (Environmental Resource Handbook, 2001)


Articles in Reference Books (unsigned and signed):

Greenhouse effect. (2005). American heritage science dictionary. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Schneider, S. H. (2000). Greenhouse effect. World book encyclopedia (Millennium ed. Vol. 8, pp. 382-383). Chicago, IL: World Book.

In-text references: (Greenhouse effect, 2005)

(Schneider, 2000)

Magazine Articles:

Allen, L. (2004, August). Will Tuvalu disappear beneath the sea? Global warming threatens to swamp a small island nation. Smithsonian, 35(5), 44-52.

Begley, S., & Murr, A. (2007, July 2). Which of these is not causing global warming? A. Sport utility vehicles; B. Rice fields; C. Increased solar output. Newsweek, 150(2), 48-50.

In-text references: (Allen, 2004)

(Begley, 2007)

Newspaper Articles (unsigned and signed):

College officials agree to cut greenhouse gases. (2007, June 13). Albany Times Union, p. A4.

Landler, M. (2007, June 2). Bush’s Greenhouse Gas Plan Throws Europe Off Guard.

New York Times, p. A7.

In-text references: (“College Officials”, 2007)

(Landler, 2007)

Journal Article with Continuous Paging:

Miller-Rushing, A. J., Primack, R. B., Primack, D., & Mukunda, S. (2006). Photographs and herbarium specimens as tools to document phonological changes in response to global warming. American Journal of Botany, 93, 1667-1674.

In-text reference: (Miller-Rushing, Primack, Primack, & Mukunda, 2006)

Journal Article when each issue begins with p.1:

Bogdonoff, S., & Rubin, J. (2007). The regional greenhouse gas initiative: Taking action in Maine. Environment, 49(2), 9-16.

In-text reference: (Bogdonoff & Rubin, 2007)

Journal Article from a Library Subscription Service Database with a DOI (digital object identifier):

Mora, C., & Maya, M. F. (2006). Effect of the rate of temperature increase of the dynamic method on the heat tolerance of fishes. Journal of Thermal Biology, 31, 337-341. doi: 10.101b/jtherbio.2006.01.055

In-text reference: (Mora & Maya, 2006)


United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2007, May 4). Climate Change. Retrieved From the Environmental Protection Agency website:

In-text reference: (United States Environmental, 2007)

Gelspan, R. (2007). The Heat Is Online. Lake Oswego, OR: Green House Network. Retrieved from The Heat Is Online website:

In-text reference: (Gelspan, 2007)


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